All or some of these components may be evaluated depending on need.
For a second language user, transference errors arise in the second language as a result of a correct habit developed in the first language or dialect which is then carried over incorrectly to a second language or dialect. Transference errors are generally inconsistent.
Verbal expression is the confluence of a speaker’s ability to target a message to the audience’s needs, the organization of that message, correct word choice – requiring a sufficient retrievable vocabulary base, grammatical/syntactic fluency, and pronunciation that is clear enough so that a listener does not have to strain to understand the speaker.
The ability to be understood.
The prosody of a language includes intonation and rhythm. Intonation is the rise and fall of the loudness and pitch of the voice. Rhythm comprises the timing of the syllables within a word, the timing of words within a sentence, and appropriate linking between words, phrases, and sentences. In standard American English, each word and each phrase has one primary stress point. The prosody of a language contributes heavily to a speaker’s ability to be understood. Word-level stress, sentence-level stress, and the ability to use contrastive stress to repair a misunderstanding are evaluated. Prosodic errors are the norm for second-language speakers. Prosody accounts for more than fifty percent of a speaker’s ability to be understood.
Speech Sounds or Phonology
Speech sound errors are of three types: 1.) a speech sound substitution where one speech sound is pronounced in place of another. For example, a person might say kite when trying to pronounce bite. 2.) a speech sound omission where a sound or syllable is not pronounced as part of a word. For example, a person might say ca when meaning to say cat. 3.) a speech sound distortion occurs in vowel sounds when one vowel sound is distorted to sound close to another vowel sound. A consonant sound, however, may simply be distorted without sounding similar to another English speech sound. English spelling is highly irregular contributing to mispronunciations.
This portion of a speech sound evaluation determines whether the individual can hear the difference between two words when they differ only by a single vowel or consonant sound. The evaluator asks the individual to repeat both words. Performance in this area provides significant information to the examiner.
Cultures vary in the way a message is organized, its relative directness, how conflict is handled, and the manner of communicating messages to superiors among other variables.
Differences in the Patterned Sequences of Words Between the Primary and Acquired
Language (Grammar and Syntax)
English language errors are frequently found in word order, verb tensing, subject-verb agreement, word inflection, preposition use, article use, and awkward expression.
A sufficient retrievable vocabulary is necessary in business discourse. Vocabulary deficits often manifest as incorrect word usage.